Теоретическая грамматика английского языка
Grammar&Semantics.Gr. is semantically expr. means, expresses diff. sem. meanings. Gr. is a complex set of semantically charged regularities of forming utterances of speech from the nominative means of l-ge. Since gr. forms and regularities are meaningful, the rules of grammar must be stated semantically, or they must be worded functionally. (ex: inverted w/o, its meaningful functions – difference between meaningful&marginal idea, emotive&unemotivemodes of speech, dif. types of style) Gr. elements of l-ge present a unity of content & expression (or form & meaning).
Syntagmatic & Paradigmatic Relations. Beaudoin de Courtenay (Rus.) & Ferdinand de Saussure (Swiss): showed difference betw. Lingual synchrony (coexistence of lingual elements) & diachrony (diff. time-periods in the development of lingual elements as well as l-ge as a whole) & defined l-ge as a synchronic system of meaningful elements at any stage of its hist. evolution. Lingual units stand to one another in 2 fundamental types of relations: syntagmatic & paradigmatic. Syntagmatic relations are immediate linear relations between units in a segmental sequence. Ex: The spaceship was launched without the help of a booster rocket. Words, word-groups and morphemes of words are connected syntagmatically. The combination of 2 words or word-groups one of which is modified by the other forms a unit, which is referred to as a syntactic “syntagma”. Notional syntagmas: predicative (a subject+predicate), objective (a verb+its object), attributive (a noun+its attr.), adverbial (verb/adj/adverb+adv.modifier). The other type of relations, opposed to synt. And called paradigmatic, are such as exist between elements of the system outside the strings where they co-occur. These intra-systemic relations & dependencies are expressed in the fact that each lingual unit is included in a set of connections based on diff. formal and functional properties.
Levels of l-ge. 1) The lowest level – phonemic.Phoneme is not a sign, but a unit of a l-ge (lacks content). It’s abstract, represents by a sound & letter. Specific function – differential: phonemes distinguish words & morphemes as material bodies, changes their meanings.2) Morphemic. Morpheme is a sign–2 sides; the smallest meaningful part of a word. The smallest -s. F-tion – significative: m. express the signif. or generalized meaning. M. is a group of allophones. Ex: roots (can function by themselves-free morph.) & affixes (suffixes, prefixes & inflections). 3) Lexemic. Lexeme (a word) in a l-ge performs a nominative (назывная) f-tion, it names objects & phenomena. 1 morpheme can be 1 word (the smallest). 4) Denotemic. A w-comb./phrase (denoteme) is a comb. of at least 2 notional w-s connected semantically. A comb. of a n.word & an aux. element is not a phrase, but just a gram.form. (ex.has been done). F-tion – polynominative. Phrases name complicated things & phenom, give add. info. about qualities of objects, circumstances. Phrases: free (we can choose elements freely) & stable (phraseological units). 5) Proposemic (a level of a sentence). F-tions: a) Nominative (names a whole situation or a sit. event) & b) Predicative. Predication is the connection betw. the subj.& the predicate of a s-ce, which form a predicative line. Predication is expr. through tense&mood of a verb. 6) Dictemic – level of topicalization. (Blokh) Unit – dicteme. Utterance – supra-sentential construction. A dicteme is a comb.of 2/more s-ces which are united by common topic. Though there may be only 1 s-ce in a d. f-tions: a) Nominative: names sit./sit.events. b)Predicative (see), c) F.of topicalozation (тематизир.) - main: each dicteme presents a separate topic in a continual text, d) Stylistic (to expr.the attitude of the speaker).
The word & the morpheme. In studying the moroheme we study the word in the necess.details of its composition&f-tions. The word is a basic nominative unit. Without words – no com-tion even in thought. Bloomfield: phoneme&morpheme are basic categories of ling.discription. M. – minimal meaningful segment. M.is a meaningful segmental component of the word; the m.is formed by phonemes. The word is a nominative unit of of l-ge built up by morphemes & indivisible into smaller segments as regards its nominative f-tion. The morphol.system of l-ge reveals its properties through the morphemic str-re of words.
Traditional (functional) class-tion of morphemes. Henry Sweet, Smirnitsky. Study of morph.str-re in traditional gr. - 2 criteria.1) Positional: the analysis of the location of the marginal morphemes in relation to the central ones. 2) Semantic (functional): involves the study of the correlative contribution of the morpheme to the general meaning of the word. M-s at the upper level are divided into root & affixal (lex.&gram.).A lot of varieties of morphemic composition of modern E.words,but preferable model is: prefix+root+lexical suffix+gram.suffix. Roots: concrete, “material” part of the meaning of the word, affixes – specificational part of the meaning. Specifications: of lexico-semantic & grammatico-semantic character. Or 3 criteria: a) semantic properties of words (meaning), b) formal properties (form), c) functional (syntactic f-tion).
Distributional class-tion of morphemes. In the distrib.analysis 3 main types of distribution are discrimin.: contrastive distr., non-contrastive distr., and complementary distr. Contr.& non-contr.distr.concern identical environments of different morphs. (Morph is combination of phones that has a meaning, it happens only once) The morphs are said to be in contrastive distr. if their meanings (f-tions) are different; such morphs constitute dofferent morphemes. Ex: returned/returning/returns. The morphs are in non-contrastive d. if their mean.(f-tions) are identical; such morphs constitute “free variants” of the same morpheme. Ex: suffixes –ed & -t (learned/learnt), -s & -i (genies/genii). As for complementary distr., it concerns diff.environments of formally diff.morphs which fulfill one & the same f-tion; such morphs are termed “allo-morphs”. Ex: a few allomorphs of the plural suffix: -en (children), -s (toys), -a (data), -es (crises), -I (genii), zero (trout-trout). The application of distr.analysis to the morphemic level-> cl-tion of m. on distr.lines. a) free & bound m., b) overt & covert m., c) additive & replacive m., d) continuous & discontin.m, e) segmental & supra-segmental m.
Synthetical & Analytical forms in Grammar. Gr.opposition – correlation of gr.forms expressing a categorical gram. meaning based on common & differential features of these forms. The means used for building up member-forms of categorical oppositions are divided into synthetical & analytical, and so do the gram.forms. Synthetical – realized by the inner morphemic composition of the word, while analytical gr.forms are built up by a combination of 2/more words, one of which is a gram.auxiliary (word-morpheme), & the other, a word of “substantial” meaning. Synthetical gr.f. are based on inner inflexion (phonemic (vowel) interchange; non-productive now, on ancient elements, used in irregular verbs, some nouns-plural), outer inflection (productive, gram.suffixation: number, case, person-number, tenseparticipial-gerundial forms, the comparisons), and suppletivity (non-prod., based on gram.interchange of word roots (be-am-is-are, go-went, good-better, we-us; +can-be able – broader morphological interpretation). Analytical (typical of modern E.) – a combination of aux.word+basic word. “Gramatically idiomatic” combinations (whose relevant gram.meaning is not dependent on meanings of their component elements taken apart). But: more, most – unidiomatic
Identification of parts of speech. The words of l-ge, depending on various formal & semantic features, are divided into grammatically relevant sets or classes. Traditionally they are called parts of speech (“lexico-gram.” series of words or categories). Today they are discriminated ac. to 3 criteria: semantic, formal & functional. Semantic (meaning): presupposes the evaluation of the generalized meaning, characteristic of all words of a given part of speech. The meaning is understood as “categorical meaning of the p.of sp.”. Formal (form): provides for the exposition of the specific inflexional & derivational (word-building) features of all the lexemic subsets of a part of speech. Functional (function): concerns the syntactic role of words in the s-ce typical of a part of speech.
Notional parts of speech in English. Acc.to these criteria words on the upper level are div.into notional (the noun, adj., numeral, pronoun, verb, adverb), words of complete nominative mean.characterized by self-dependent f-tions, & functional (the article, prepos., conj., particle, modal verb, interjection). Noun: 1) meaning-substance (thinfness), 2) the changeable forms of number & case; specific suff.forms of derivation, 3) the substantive f-tions in the s-ce (subj., obj., substantival predicate); prepositional connections; modiication by an adj. Adjective: 1) the categorical mean. of property (qualitative & relative), 2) forms of degrees of comparison (for qualitative adj.), spec.suff.forms of deriv., 3) adj.f-tions (attribute to a noun, adjectival predicate). Numeral: 1) number (cardinal-порядк. & ordinal-колич.), 2) narrow set of simple numerals, sp.forms of composition for compound num., sp.forms of deriv.for ordinal num., 3)f-tions of numerical attr. & numer. substantive. Pronoun: 1)indication (deixis), 2)narrow sets of various status with the corresponding formal properties of categ.changeability & w-building, 3)the subst. & adjectival f-tions for dif.sets. Verb: 1)process (finite process & non-finite pr.), 2)of verbal categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice, mood; opposition of finite & non-finite forms, 3)f-tion of the finite predicate for the finite verb; mixed verbal-other than verbal f-tions for the non-f.verb. Adverb: 1) secondary property (i.e. of process or another property), 2)of degrees of comparison for qualitative adverbs; sp.suffixal forms of derivation; 3) f-tions of various adv. modifiers.
Functional parts of speech.-Words of incomplete nominative meaning & non-self-dependent, mediary f-tions in the s-ce. Their number is limited. Article: expresses the specific limitation of the substantive f-tions. Preposition: expr.the dependencies and interdependencies of substantive referents. Conjunction: expr. connections of phenomena. Particle: unites the funct.words of specifying&limiting meaning. Modal verbs: expr.the attitude of the sp.to the situation. Here belong words of probability (probably, perhaps), of qualitative evaluation (un/fortunately, luckily), of affirm. & negation. Interjection: is a signal of emotions.
Syntactic classes of words (Ch.Fries). The syntactic (monofiggerential) cl-tion of words is based on syntactic featuring of words only. The syntactic cl-tion of words, in principle, supplements the 3-criteria cl-tion specifying the syntactic features of parts of speech. For the Rus. l-ge the basic principles of the syntactic cl-tion of words were outlined in the works of Peshkovski. In English the syntactico-distributional cl-tion of words was worked out by Bloomfield & his followers Harris and esp-ly Ch.Fries. The synt.-distrib. Cl-tion of words is based on the study of their combinability by means of substitution tests. As a rezult of this testing, a standart model of 4 main syntactic positions of notional words was built up. These positions are those of the noun,verb,adj,&adverb. Pronouns are included into the corresponding positional classes as their substitutes. Words incapable to occupy the said main syntactic positions are treated as functional words.
The three-Layer structure of vocabulary (M.Blokh). –cl-tion of the lexicon presenting some essential generalizations about its str-re. Lexicon is divided into 2 parts: notional words & f-tional words. The open character of the notional part & the closed character of the f-tional part have the status of a formal grammatical feature. Between them there is also an intermediary field of semi-functional words. 1)The whole of the lexicon is divided into 3 layers. 2)The 1st(upper) layer, of open character, is formed by 4 classes of notional words; since these words have full nominative value,they may be referred to as “names”: respectively, substance-names (nouns), process-n.(verbs), primary property n.(adj.), secondary property n. (adverbs); 3) the names are consolidated into an integral system by the lexical paradigm of nomination-the paradigmatic series whose f-tion is to form & distribute any given word root among the 4 lexical class-types (p-s of speech); 4) the 2nd (intermediate) layer of closed char., is formed by pronominal words or “substitutes of names”; here belong pronouns & replacer lexemes of all kinds (noun-,verb-,adj-,adv-replacers), w. of broad meaning (thing, matter etc) & numbers; 5) the 3rd (lower) layer of closed char., is formed by functional w. proper, or “specifiers of names”: determiners, prep., conj., particles etc. The f-tion of 2nd & 3rd layers is to organize together with the categorial means of grammar, the production of speech utterances out of the direct naming means of l-ge (the 1st layer).
13. The structure of gram. Cat.
It’s a gr. concept proper. Gr. Cat. Is a whole system of gr. Forms expressing a generalized gr. Func..
Gr.cat.: 1. gr. Feture – гр. признак (ex. suffix). 2. gr. Form. 3. Gr. Paradigm. 4. Gr. Opp.
Synthetiacal, analytical – the feat.s expressing the form are gr. Morphemes. Synth. Form is one-single word including the gr. Feat.. Ex. Tables. Analyt. Form consists of 2 parts (word expressing the material meaning & word exp. The feat.). Ex. Will go. 3 types of synth.forms:
1. built up by the change of root morpheme, vowel-interchange (man-men) inner inflexion.
2. outer inflexion – table – tables.
3. suppletivity – I am, you are, bad-worse
14. Cat. of Number
The cat. of number is expressed by the opp. of the plural form of the noun to its singular form. The semantic difference of the opp.al members of the cat. of number in many linguistic works is treated trad.ly: the meaning of the singular is interpreted as "1" & the meaning of the plural - as "many" ("more than 1"). As the trad. interpretation of the singular & the plural members does not work in many cases, recently the categorial meaning of the plural has been reconsidered & now it is interpreted as the denotation of "the potentially dismembering reflection of the structure of the referent" (correspondingly, the categorial meaning of the singular is treated as "the non-dismembering reflection of the structure of the referent").
The categorial opp. of number is subjected to the process of opp.al reduction. Neutralization takes place when countable Ns begin to func. as Singularia Tantum Ns, denoting in such cases either abstract ideas or some mass material, e.g. On my birthday we alw have goose; or when countable Ns are used in the func. of the Absol. Plural: The board are not unanimous on the ?. A styl.ally marked transposition is achieved by the use of the descriptive uncountable plural (The fruits of the toil are not alw visible) & the "repetition plural" (Car after car rushed past me).
15. Cat. of Case
The case meanings in Eng relate to 1 another in a peculiar, unknown in other lang.s, way: the common case is quite indiff. from the semantic point of view, while the genitive case func.s as a subsidiary element