Grammar

NOMINAL & VERBAL NATURE:

1.Nominal:

-can perform the function of subject(swimming is delightful there), object(I like making people happy), predicative(my favorite sport is figure-skating.

-can be preceded by a preposition(I’m very fond of flying).

-can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun(Is any objection to my seeng her?)

2.Verbal:

-the gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object(I have made a progress in understanding his speech).

-can be modified by an adverb(she burst out crying bitterly)

-has tense distinctions, the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions.(indefinite-he can swim without tiring, & perfect-she denies having spoken with him, passive & active-he liked neithe reading aloud, neither being read aloud to)

PREDICATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS:

  1. Complex Subject - There is no use you telling me not to worry.

  2. Complex Predicative – My idea of holiday is going to the seaside.

  3. Complex Object – Perhaps you wouldn’t mind his coming in.

  4. Complex Attribute – I like the idea of Michael’s going with us.

  5. Complex Adverbial modifier – I went to the cinema in spite of her having told me her impressions.

All forms are used. The nominal Element may be expressed:

A living being:

  1. By a noun in the Possessive Case. (I like the idea of Michael’s going with us.

  2. By a Possessive pronoun. (The day passed without her resolving this problem).

  3. By a noun in the common case. When the doer of the action is emphasized. -He denied Mary having done this on purpose. When the nominal element consists of 2 or more nouns( I insist on Mary & Kate spending their free-time together.

  4. By a pronoun in the objective case. (Do you mind them going there?)

A lifeless thing:

  1. By a possessive pronoun (he insisted on its (the letter) being sent immediately.

  2. By a noun in the common case(Everything depends on the letters being sent in time).

  3. By pronouns all, this, that, both, each, something(I couldn’t deny both of them having had a nice holiday).

SUBJECT.

All forms are used.

IGA-It’s good your trying to find the right answer.

IGP-Their being late disappointed them.

PGA-His having lost the right way was a great disappointment to us.

PGP-Mike’s having been put in this position irritated us.

The gerund may follow a predicate – the sentence opens with introductory it. It’s no use talking like that to me.

Introductory “there is no” – there is no deceiving him, he can read my face like a book.

Complex

PREDICATIVE:

Only IGA- The only remedy for such a headache is going to bed;& IGP – what annoyed me most of all was his accepting their proposal quite readily.

PART OF A COMPOUND VERBAL PREDICATE:

Aspect: IGA - In the night it started raining.

Modal: IGA – I couldn’t help playing this game, IGP – I couldn’t help being excited when I was told the news.

Verbs with which the g forms a CAP: keep on, go on, give up, leave off, burst out, finish, stop, cease, begin, start, continue.

Modal: with the modal expression can’t help.

DIRECT OBJECT:

After verbs: avoid, be busy, can’t afford, can’t bear, deny, deserve, dislike, enjoy, excuse, fancy, forget, forgive, hate, like, mind, need, postpone (откладывать), prefer, put off, recollect, regret, remember, require, suggest, want.

All forms are used.

IGA – I love reading. IGP – I can’t bear being asked about my family. PGA – he didn’t recollect such a thing having happened to him before. PGP – He denied the message having been sent by him.

PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT:

After: approve of, complain of, accuse of, suspect of, think of, boast of, be aware of, be capable of, be fond of, be pleased at, be surprised at, agree to, object to, confess to, devote to, look forward to, get used to, get accustomed to, rely on, insist on, count on, depend on, feel like, look like, persist in, succeed in, be busy in, prevent from, keep from, thank for, care

of.

IGA - I complained of having my letter returned. IGP – I insisted on the parcel being sent with declared value. PGA-I suspected of his having done the homework. PGP-He complained of having been interrupted by the others.

ATTRIBUTE:

After:

  • Of: chance, habit, idea, trouble, risk, method, way, custom, fear, manner, means, problem, necessity, possibility, pleasure, right, hope, intention, importance, effort, feeling, sound, gift, sign.(he was born with the gift of winning hearts).

  • For: instruction, apology, explanation, reason, preparation, excuse, plan.(I have no instruction for using it).

  • In: experience, use, skill, interest, sense, harm, difficulty. (I have no experience in doing such kind of work).

  • At: Astonishment, disappointment, surprise. He couldn’t conceal his astonishment at seeing them together.

ADVERBIAL MODIFIER:

  • Time (after, before, on, upon, in, at) IGA-Upon waking I found myself much recovered. IGP-After being looked through, the book was left in the library.

  • Manner (by, in): IGA-The day was spent in packing. IGP-He succeeded in finishing the work by being given a helpful hand.

  • Attendant circumstances (without, besides, instead of):IGA- I passed by without noticing him. IGP- Without being looked through the documents were signed.

  • Purpose(for): IGA-One side of the hall was used for dancing. IGP-He thanked them for being given a good advice.

  • Condition(without, in case of): IGA-You can get tickets without booking them. IGP- You can’t see me without being invited.

  • Cause(for, for fear of, owing to, trough, because of): IGA-I decided to miss my classes for fear of making a fool of myself. IGP-Through being read to, he understood the topic. PGA-I felt better for having spent a good deal of my time abroad. PGP-He was in hospital for having been run by a car.

  • Concession(in spite of/despite): IGA-In spite of being busy, he did everything to help me. IGP-In spite of being looked through, the documents were not signed. PGA- In spite of having visited his parents, he missed them very much.

G & Participle:

G may be preceded by a preposition, may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun, can be used as a subject, object, predicative. As an adv mod is always preceded by a preposition. If we have a gerund as part of a compound noun, the person denoted by the noun doesn’t perform the action expressed by ing-form: dancing hall-hall for dancing. If we have a participle used as an attribute the person denoted by the pronoun performs the action expressed by the ing-form: a dancing girl-girl who dances. 2 interpretations: hunting dog, sewing machine.

G & VERBAL NOUN:

  • G has double character, verbal noun only nominal.

  • G can’t be used without article, verbal noun-can(I want you to give my hair a good brushing).

  • G has no plural form, vn-our likings are regulated by our circumstanses.

  • G of a transitive verb takes a direct object: He received a lot of letters & had given up in reading them.

  • VN can’t take a direct object, it takes a prepositional object with of: She was rallying her nerves to the reading of the paper.

  • G can be modified by an adverb(drinking, even temperately, was a sin. VN may be modified by an adjective:Hi took a good scolding aout clodding Sam.




Subject

  1. It’s always easy to

  2. It’s hard to

  3. It’s important to

  4. It gives him pleasure to

  5. It’s dangerous to

  6. It’s wise of him to

  7. It does people a lot of good to

  8. It won’t do you any harm to

  9. It has become his habit to

  10. It surprised me to

  11. It made me feel awkward to

  12. It was natural to



Part of a compound verbal modal predicate.


Part of a compound verbal aspect (вид) predicate.

1. Modal verbs: can, may, must, to be to, to have to, should, ought, will, would, shall, need.

2. Modal expressions had better, would rather.

The verbs expressing the beginning, the duration, the repetition, the end of the action: to begin, to start, to commence, to continue, to cease, used to+Inf, would + Inf.



Part of a compound nominal predicate.

  1. predicative

  2. part of a predicative

  1. It is hard to please.

  2. She is easy to deal with.

  3. She is pleasant to look at.

  4. The article is difficult to translate.

  5. He was difficult to convince.


Object(дополнение).
  1. To order, to agree, to forget, to remember…

  2. To be glad, to be happy, to be delighted…

  3. To order, to teach, to ask. To help, to assist, to tell, to instruct, to request, to advise, to beg, to invite, to encourage…

  4. To find, to consider, to think, to make, to feel

It

{Interesting, necessary, impossible, cruel, useful, hopeful, hopeless} to do smth.


Attribute(определение).
  1. Class nouns.

  2. Abstract nouns

  3. Experience of quantity (much, little..)

  4. Indefinite pronouns (smb, anybody…)

  5. The adjective last.

  6. Ordinal numerals ( the 1st, 2nd..)



Adverbial modifier (обстоятельство)

  1. of purpose.


  1. of result


  1. comparison (manner) (сравнение)

  2. attendant circumstances (сопутствующих обстоятельств)


  1. By the conjunctions in order, so as.

  2. Without any conjunction.

  1. Too hot (skilled, excited, shocked, frightened, impressed, angry) to do smth.

  2. Clever (experienced, skilled, strong, old, sharp, brave) enough to do smth.

  3. So cruel (impressed, careless) as to do smth.

  4. Such a man ( a fool, a woman, a son, a student, a sportsmen) as to do smth.

By the conjunctions as if, than, as though.

The adverb never, the particle only.



Parenthesis (вводные слова).
  1. To cut a long story short, to put it in a nutshell (короче говоря).

  2. To say the least (чтобы не сказать больше).

  3. To tell you the truth – to speak the truth (по правде говоря).

  4. To put it mildly (мягко говоря).

  5. To say nothing of (не говоря уже)

  6. To be frank (откравенно говоря).


A complex object.

Without the particle to:

  1. after verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to watch, to observe, to notice, to feel)

  2. After verbs of compulsion (принуждение) (то make, to have).

  3. After the verb to let.

Without particle to:

  1. After verbs denoting mental ability (интеллектуальные): to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to find, to understand.

  2. After the verbs denoting declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report; wish & intention: to want, to wish, to desire, should like, to intend, to mean; after verbs denoting feeling & emotion: to like, to dislike, to love to hate, cannot bear.

  3. After verbs denoting order & permission: to order, to allow.

Objective infinitive construction

1. After verbs denoting sense perception: to hear, to see, to watch, to observe, to notice, etc.

(only the Indefinite Infinitive Active is used. If the meaning is passive we use Participle II)

Note: to see=to understand: we don’t use the construction.

To hear=to lern, to be told: we use a clause of a gerund.

2.After verbs denoting mental activity: to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to imagine, to find, to feel, to trust, etc. After them- to be( not after expect). Perfect Infinitive is seldom used.

3.After verbs of declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report.

  1. After verbs denoting wish & intention: to want, to wish, to desire, to mean, to intend, to choose.

  2. After verbs denoting feeling & emotions: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot bear, etc.

  3. After verbs denoting order & permission: to order, to allow, to suffer, to have, etc. !!! Only if the object is expressed by a noun or pronoun denoting a lifeless thing or when the infinitive is passive( not for to suffer & to have.

  4. After verbs denoting compulsion: to to make(заставить), to cause(заставить, распорядиться), to get(добиться), to have(заставить, сказать, чтобы).

  5. With the preposition for, on & upon(after to rely)


The Subjective Infinitive construction.
  1. With verbs denoting sense perception: to see, to hear, etc.(If a process is expressed Participle I is used).

  2. With verbs denoting mental activity: to think, to consider, to know, to believe, to suppose.

  3. With the verb to make.

  4. With verbs to say & to report( translation-неопределённо-личное предложение).

  5. With the verbs to be likely, to be sure, to be certain.

  6. With pairs of synonyms: to seem & to appear, to happen & to chance(случайно), to prove & to turn out(оказалось).

The For-to-Infinitive Construction
  1. The Subject(often with the introductory it)

  2. Predicative

  3. Complex object.

  4. Attribute.

  5. Adverbial modifier

a)of purpose

b)of result



Subject

  1. It’s always easy to

  2. It’s hard to

  3. It’s important to

  4. It gives him pleasure to

  5. It’s dangerous to

  6. It’s wise of him to

  7. It does people a lot of good to

  8. It won’t do you any harm to

  9. It has become his habit to

  10. It surprised me to

  11. It made me feel awkward to

  12. It was natural to



Part of a compound verbal modal predicate.


Part of a compound verbal aspect (вид) predicate.

1. Modal verbs: can, may, must, to be to, to have to, should, ought, will, would, shall, need.

2. Modal expressions had better, would rather.

The verbs expressing the beginning, the duration, the repetition, the end of the action: to begin, to start, to commence, to continue, to cease, used to+Inf, would + Inf.



Part of a compound nominal predicate.

  1. predicative

  2. part of a predicative

  1. It is hard to please.

  2. She is easy to deal with.

  3. She is pleasant to look at.

  4. The article is difficult to translate.

  5. He was difficult to convince.


Object(дополнение).
  1. To order, to agree, to forget, to remember…

  2. To be glad, to be happy, to be delighted…

  3. To order, to teach, to ask. To help, to assist, to tell, to instruct, to request, to advise, to beg, to invite, to encourage…

  4. To find, to consider, to think, to make, to feel

It

{Interesting, necessary, impossible, cruel, useful, hopeful, hopeless} to do smth.


Attribute(определение).
  1. Class nouns.

  2. Abstract nouns

  3. Experience of quantity (much, little..)

  4. Indefinite pronouns (smb, anybody…)

  5. The adjective last.

  6. Ordinal numerals ( the 1st, 2nd..)



Adverbial modifier (обстоятельство)

  1. of purpose.


  1. of result


  1. comparison (manner) (сравнение)


  1. attendant circumstances (сопутствующих обстоятельств)



  1. By the conjunctions in order, so as.

  2. Without any conjunction.

  1. Too hot (skilled, excited, shocked, frightened, impressed, angry) to do smth.

  2. Clever (experienced, skilled, strong, old, sharp, brave) enough to do smth.

  3. So cruel (impressed, careless) as to do smth.

  4. Such a man ( a fool, a woman, a son, a student, a sportsmen) as to do smth.

By the conjunctions as if, than, as though.

The adverb never, the particle only.


By the conjunctions as if, as thought, than


Adverb never, the participle only


Parenthesis (вводные слова).
  1. To cut a long story short, to put it in a nutshell (короче говоря).

  2. To say the least (чтобы не сказать больше).

  3. To tell you the truth – to speak the truth (по правде говоря).

  4. To put it mildly (мягко говоря).

  5. To say nothing of (не говоря уже)

  6. To be frank (откравенно говоря).


A complex object.

Without the particle to:

  1. after verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to watch, to observe, to notice, to feel)

  2. After verbs of compulsion (принуждение) (то make, to have).

  3. After the verb to let.

Without particle to:

  1. After verbs denoting mental ability (интеллектуальные): to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to suppose, to expect, to find, to understand.

  2. After the verbs denoting declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to

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