Management of organization

Одеський національний політехнічний університет

Менеджмент


Методичні вказівки до практичних занять з англійської мови за спеціальністю «Менеджмент» для студентів ІІ курсу


Передмова


Метою “Методичних вказiвок” є формування впродовж 72 годин аудиторних занять у студентів (вхідний рівень володіння мовою – В1) вмiнь та навичок читання, письма та говоріння за тематикою спеціальності «Менеджмент організацій» на ІІ курсі навчання Інституту бізнесу, економіки та інформаційних технологій (вихідний рівень володіння мовою – В2). За рахунок тренування і виконання читання текстів і комунікативних завдань студенти зможуть досягти практичного володіння англійською мовою за фахом.

Практичне володіння іноземною мовою в рамках даного курсу припускає наявність таких умінь в різних видах мовної комунікації, які дають можливість:

вільно читати оригінальну літературу іноземною мовою у відповідній галузі знань;

оформляти витягнуту з іноземних джерел інформацію у вигляді перекладу або резюме;

робити повідомлення і доповіді іноземною мовою на теми, пов'язані з науковою роботою майбутнього фахівця;

вести бесіду за фахом.

Кожний урок складається з тексту й комплекса мовних вправ, які розраховані на удосконалення навичок активізації словарного і граматичного мінімуму професійного спрямування. “Методичні вказiвки” забезпечують підготовку до міжнародного усного і письмового спілкування англійською мовою для спеціальних цілей, а саме - оволодіння лексичними, граматичними і стилістичними навичками, а також умінням розмовляти, читати, переписуватися, перекладати, конспектувати, згортати і розгортати усну і письмову англомовну інформацію наукового функціонального стилю, що передбачено вимогами Програми вивчення мов у нефілологічному ВУЗі.

Lesson 1 THE READING MODULE


Read the text: The Nature of Management

Management is an important area of study from both the personal and the global perspective. Formally defined, management is the process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment. Central to this process is the effective and efficient use of limited resources. Managerial ability is the demonstrated capacity to achieve organizational objectives both effectively and efficiently.

The basic formula for managerial success is S=A x M x O (managerial success = ability x motivation to manage x opportunity). Managerial ability results when theory and practice are systematically integrated.

A small business is defined as an independently owned and managed profit-seeking enterprise employing fewer than 100 persons. Small business and public sector organizations afford managers some unique opportunities and challenges. Research indicates that small busi ness managers have a different managerial role profile than do managers in larger businesses. The axiom of the small business generalist and the large business specialist appears to be valid. "Lack of management expertise" was found by researchers to be the primary cause of the high failure rate in small businesses. In spite of a good deal of evidence to the contrary, public sector managers must cope with a negative image. Many people assume that bureaucrats are incompetent and wasteful. Four major constraints public sector managers must deal with are: legislated purposes (government agencies are told what to do by law-making bodies), no compe tition, weak incentives, and organizational inflexibility (large governmental bureaucracies have to be highly structured to provide standard services to millions of clients nationwide, reams of procedures and regulations can stifle innovation).

Slumping productivity growth in the United States took an upward swing in 1983-84 largely due to a maturing work force, lower inflation and cheaper energy, technological advancement, and increased labor-manage ment cooperation. Still, there is much room for improvement if the United States is to match Japan's record of productivity growth. It is important for managers to translate the productivity problem into organizational terms. Organizational productivity is the ratio of total input to total output, adjusted for inflation, for a specific period of time. Japan, with the world's highest rate of productivity growth, is an inspiring example of how to do more with less.


I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:


objective, opportunity, challenge, valid, rate, productivity growth, labor, input, output, incentive, purpose, ratio, competition, room, improvement, advancement, inflexibility, evidence, failure

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) What does management study?

2) What is the primary cause of the high failure rate in small businesses?

3) What are four major constraints public sector managers must deal with?

4) What is organizational productivity?


Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:


1. Small business and public sector organizations a) afford managers some unique opportunities and challenges.
2. Management is the process of working with and through others b) are incompetent and wasteful.
3. There is much room for improvement if the United States is c) to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment.
4. Many people assume that bureaucrats d) to match Japan's record of productivity growth.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

(Rising/slumping) productivity growth in the United States took an upward swing in 1983-84 largely due to a maturing work force, lower inflation and (cheaper/more expensive) energy, technological advancement, and increased labor-manage ment cooperation.


THE SPEAKING MODULE


II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describe management, organizational productivity, managerial ability, small business using the suggested words and expressions as in example:


management

to achieve, objectives, process, with and through, environment, changing

example:

Management is the process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment. Central to this process is the effective and efficient use of limited resources.


organizational productivity

ratio, output, inflation, period of time, total, input


managerial ability

capacity, objectives, efficiently, to achieve, demonstrated


small business

enterprise, owned, profit-seeking, managed, employing, fewer, independently


Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Research indicates that small busi ness managers have a different managerial role profile than do managers in larger businesses.

2) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: It is important for managers to translate the productivity problem into organizational terms.

3) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Small business and public sector organizations afford managers some unique opportunities and challenges.

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

adjusted, inspiring, of, rate, for, into

It is important _____ managers to translate the productivity problem____ organizational terms. Organizational productivity is the ratio ___ total input to total output,______ for inflation, for a specific period of time. Japan, with the world's highest ____ of productivity growth, is an ______example of how to do more with less.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“Management is an important area of study”

“Small business management”

“Public sector management”


Lesson 2. THE READING MODULE


Read the text: The evolution of management thought

Management thought has evolved in bits and pieces over the years. Although the practice of management dates back to the earliest recorded history, the systematic study of management is largely a product of the twentieth century. An information explosion in management theory has created a management theory jungle. Five conventional approaches to management are: (1) the universal process approach, (2) the operational approach, (3) the behavioral approach, (4) the systems approach, and (5) the contingency approach. A modern unconventional approach centers on Peters’ and Waterman's attributes of corporate excellence.

Henri Fayol's universal process approach assumes that all organiza tions, regardless of purpose or size, require the same management process. Furthermore, it assumes that this rational process can be reduced to separate functions and principles of management. The universal process approach, the oldest of the various approaches, is still popular today.

Dedicated to promoting production efficiency and reducing waste, the operational approach has evolved from scientific management to opera tions management. Frederick W. Taylor, the father of scientific manage ment, and his followers revolutionized industrial management through the use of standardization, time and motion study, selection and training, and pay incentives. Largely a product of the post-World War II era, operations management has broadened the scientific pursuit of efficiency to include all productive organizations. Operations management specialists often rely on sophisticated models and quantitative techniques.

Management has turned to the human factor in the human relations movement and organizational behavior. Emerging from such factors as unionization, the Hawthorne studies, and the philosophy of industrial humanism, the human relations movement began as a concerted effort to make employees' needs a high management priority. Today, organizational behavior tries to identify the multiple determinants of job performance.

Advocates of the systems approach recommend that modern organiza tion, he viewed as open systems. Open systems depend on the outside environment for survival, whereas closed systems do not. General systems theory, an interdisciplinary field based on the assumption that everything is systematically related, has identified a hierarchy of systems and has differentiated closed and open system.

The contingency approach is an effort to determine through research which managerial practices and techniques are appropriate in specific situations. It is characterized by an open-system perspective, a practical research orientation, and a multivariate approach to research.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:


approach, survival, behavior, pursuit, determinant, priority, quantitative techniques, waste, job performance, contingency, effort, environment

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) What are conventional approaches to management?

2) What does the universal process approach assume?

3) What has the operational approach evolved from?

4) What do operations management specialists often rely on?


Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1. Today, organizational behavior tries a) the oldest of the various approaches, is still popular today.
2. Henri Fayol's universal process approach assumes b) the scientific pursuit of efficiency to include all productive organizations.
3. The universal process approach, c) to identify the multiple determinants of job performance.
4. Operations management has broadened d) that this rational process can be reduced to separate functions and principles of management.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

Dedicated to promoting production efficiency and (increasing/reducing) waste, the operational approach has (evolved/resumed) from scientific management to opera tions management.

THE SPEAKING MODULE

II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describe universal process approach, operational approach, behavioral approach, systems approach,contingency approach using the suggested words and expressions as in example:


universal process approach

the same, rational, assumes, regardless, size, require

example:

Henri Fayol's universal process approach assumes that all organiza tions, regardless of purpose or size, require the same management process. Furthermore, it assumes that this rational process can be reduced to separate functions and principles of management.

operational approach

waste, standardization, promoting, motion study, incentives, training

behavioral approach

unionization, human relations, priority, industrial humanism, employees' needs

systems approach

open systems, survival, related, closed system, environment, outside

contingency approach

perspective, orientation, research, open-system, multivariate, specific situations, managerial


Exercise 2. Ask questions to the given answers:

1) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Although the practice of management dates back to the earliest recorded history, the systematic study of management is largely a product of the twentieth century.

2) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: Management has turned to the human factor in the human relations movement and organizational behavior.

3) Question: ___________________________________________ ?

Answer: The contingency approach is an effort to determine through research which managerial practices and techniques are appropriate in specific situations.

THE WRITING MODULE

III. Writing exercises:

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the suggested words:

assumption; differentiated; outside; systems; is.

Open systems depend on the ______ environment for survival, whereas closed systems do not. General systems theory, an interdisciplinary field based on the _______ that everything ____ systematically related, has identified a hierarchy of _____ and has ______ closed and open system.

Exercise 2. Compose a story on one of the topics (up to 100 words):

“Five conventional approaches to management”

“ The evolution of management thought”


Lesson 3 THE READING MODULE


Read the text: Planning and decision making

Planning has been labeled the primary management function because it sets the stage for all other aspects of management. Recent research has uncovered the following trends in corporate planning: more planners with actual management experience; greater teamwork, customizing, and flexibility; and more translation of broad strategies into how-to-do-it plans. Along with many other practical reasons for planning, two conceptual reasons for planning are limited resources and an uncertain environment. To cope with environmental uncertainty, organizations can respond as defenders, prospectors, analyzers, or reactors.

A properly written plan tells what, when, and how something is to be accomplished. Clearly written organizational mission statements tend to serve as a useful focal point for the planning process. Strategic, intermediate, and operational plans are formulated by top, middle, and lower-level management, respectively. Objectives have been called the single most important feature of the planning process. Well-written objectives spell out in measurable terms what should be accomplished and when it is to be accomplished. Good objectives help managers by serving as targets, act ing as measuring sticks, encouraging commitment, and strengthening motivation. Objective setting begins at the top of the organization and filters down, thus forming a means-ends chain. Priorities affect resource allocation by assigning relative importance to objectives. Plans are formu lated and executed as part of a more encompassing planning/control cycle.

Management by objectives (MBO) is an approach to planning and controlling that is based on measurable and participatively set objectives. MBO basically consists of four steps: (1) set objectives participatively, (2) develop action plans, (3) periodically reevaluate objectives and plans and monitor performance, and (4) conduct annual performance appraisals. Objective setting in MBO flows from top to bottom. MBO has both strengths and limitations and requires a supportive climate favorable to change, participation, and the sharing of authority.

Break-even analysis, or cost-volume-profit analysis, can be carried out algebraically or graphically. Either way, it helps planners gauge the potential impact of price changes and profit objectives on sales volume. A major limitation of break-even analysis is that specialized accounting knowledge is required to identify relevant fixed and variable costs.

I. Reading Exercises:

Exercise 1. Read and memorize using a dictionary:


objective, target, measuring sticks, resource allocation, trend, teamwork, conceptual reasons, environmental, defender, respectively, priority, appraisal, gauge, profit

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) Why has planning been labeled the primary management function?

2) What are two conceptual reasons for planning?

3) Who formulates intermediate plans?

4) What is management by objectives based on?


Exercise 3. Match the left part with the right:

1. A properly written plan tells what, when, and how a) flows from top to bottom.
2. Objective setting in MBO b) organizations can respond as defenders.
3. Objectives have been called c) something is to be accomplished.
4. To cope with environmental uncertainty, d) the single most important feature of the planning process.

Exercise 4. Open brackets choosing the right words:

Good objectives (hamper/help) managers by serving as targets, act ing as measuring sticks, (encouraging/discouraging) commitment, and strengthening motivation.

The speaking module


II. Speaking Exercises:

Exercise 1. Describe planning, objectives, MBO,cost-volume-profit analysis using the suggested words and expressions as in

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